The Intelligence Agencies' "Duty to Warn"
Documents released in our FOIA lawsuit for records on the U.S. government's "duty to warn" Jamal Khashoggi
This Reading Room features all of the documents produced in Knight Institute v. CIA, a FOIA lawsuit the Knight Institute and the Committee to Protect Journalists filed in late 2018 for records showing whether U.S. intelligence agencies fulfilled their “duty to warn” reporter Jamal Khashoggi of threats to his life and liberty.
Our FOIA lawsuit sought records from the agencies most likely to learn of threats to Khashoggi: the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Department of State (DOS), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), National Security Agency (NSA), and Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI).
In response, the agencies released about 20 documents concerning Intelligence Community Directive 191, which provides that when a U.S. intelligence agency learns of an impending threat to an individual’s life or liberty, the agency must “warn the intended victim.” The CIA, FBI, NSA, and ODNI refused to confirm or deny, however, whether they possess records concerning Khashoggi and the duty to warn, and the DOS insisted that they did not.
How to use this Reading Room: The collection below can be searched by keyword, or filtered using the criteria in the left-hand column.
Showing 1–10 of 26
DOS FOIA Response Letter
Second response letter from DOS to Knight Institute's FOIA request.
DOS FOIA Response Letter
Response letter from DOS to the Knight Institute's FOIA request.
FBI FOIA Response Letter
Response letter from FBI to the Knight Institute's FOIA request.
CIA FOIA Response Letter re: DOS referral
Response letter from CIA to DOS's request to review material responsive to the Knight Institute's FOIA request.
CIA FOIA Response Letter
Response letter from CIA to Knight Institute's FOIA request.
NSA FOIA Response Letter
Response letter from NSA to the Knight Institute's FOIA request.
ODNI FOIA Response Letter
Response letter from ODNI to the Knight Institute's FOIA request.
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide: § 14.7 Threat to Life – Dissemination of Information
Sections from FBI's Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide explaining how the FBI notifies persons of threats to their life or threats that may result in serious bodily injury.
FBI Memo: CTD Duty to Warn Standard Operating Procedures
Memo outlining the standard operating procedures for the FBI Counterterrorism Division's Duty to Warn.
Emails between DOS officials re: Duty to Warn guidance
Correspondence between DOS officials regarding duty to warn guidelines as reflected on the internal DOS wiki.